Carbaryl is a simple carbamate pesticide that is more commonly used an insecticide. It is usually used on various types of crops like citrus, corn, soy and people use them in home gardens and for their livestock as well. The usage of carbaryl can cause acute symptoms in lab as well as in occupational human exposures. Just like with any other insecticides, carbaryl has a negative impact on various aquatic organisms and is considered to be a threat to the population of different beneficial insects like bees.
Carbaryl was discovered in 1958 by a company known as Unicon Carbide. This company is quite infamous for the Bhopal disaster that occurred in 1984. Carbryl is formed by treating methyl isocynate with 1-napthol. Crystals are formed after the reaction takes place which are usually colorless but depending in the type of reaction, they can turn gray hue or white.
The most common name of carbaryl is Sevin. It has also trade names like Carames, Adios, Hexavin, Denapon and Panam. The major use of carbaryl is as an insecticide and is commercially used on crops like cotton, nuts, pears, soybean and cotton. Apart from being really effective as an acaricide and molluscicide, this is also used for controlling pest infestation. You will see carbaryl to be used on species of lice, poultry, livestock and pets.
Carbaryl is also used in settings other than the farmlands. For instance, in garden settings and suburban yards carbaryl is mostly used for maintaining and raising shade trees. This chemical is readily available in the market in different mediums like in dusts, baits, granules and wettable powders. The granules are used for lawn pests whereas the dust formulation is common for landscape pest control. Carbaryl should neither be used on animals nor to be used indoors because it is extremely neurotoxin.
Carbaryl can have a very serious impact on mammals’ health. Different reports claim that the exposure to carbaryl can cause vomiting, nausea, coma, blurred vision and difficulty in breathing as well. There have been several tests carried out on rabbits, guinea pigs and mice that clearly show that this chemical has a severe impact on mammalian organisms. Just like animals, humans are also affected by this chemical through inhalation, ingestion and via skin contact. The effect on humans is quite severe and can lead to stomach cramps, irritation and burns. The severity of these issues is mainly dependent on the transmission route.
While considering such side effects, carbaryl is considered to be a Type II Moderately hazardous Pesticide. Different regulatory organizations and organizations like EPA have listed this chemical as an endocrine, carcinogen and reproductive toxicant. Several tests have also observed symptoms like memory loss; long lasting headaches, muscle weakness which is mainly due to low-level carbaryl exposure. However, these tests have not shown any conclusive results.
It has been proven that this chemical causes mutagenic effects on some animals. When this chemical was tested on rates, it was observed that there cell division and growth were adversely affected.